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Muhammad Wasif Haq, Batool M, Ahsan S.H., Lone M.A., Islam T


The primary aim of the study was to determine causative factors involved in dental erosion in patients coming for regular dental checkup at Liaquat college of medicine and dentistry, Karachi, Pakistan and to secondarily determine the initial pH of various solutions having potential for dental erosion (soft drinks, fruit based drinks and mouthwashes) and compare it with pH of mineral water. A total of 100 participants completed a questionnaire that assessed patient age, gender, presence of extra oral symptoms (acidity, burning chest pain and vomiting), dental sensitivity, dry mouth, type of drink consumed, frequency of beverage intake, citrus fruit consumption and use of mouthwash. Dental examination was performed to assess dental erosion and the lesions graded according to Basic erosive wear examination (B.E.W.E.) index. For pH analysis, 2 samples from 14 different brands of soft drinks, fruit based drinks and mouthwashes were selected. The initial pH was recorded for a standard volume of 100 ml at 250 C by electronic pH meter at Husein Ebrahim Jamal (H.E.J.)labs, Karachi, Pakistan. The tests were repeated twice for every sample and the average pH was calculated and compared with the pH of commercially available mineral water (control). A total of 58 patients had erosion. Significant risk factors for dental erosion were increasing age, presence of extra oral symptoms, dry mouth, frequency of beverage intake and citrus fruits consumption (p<0.05).  No significant associations were observed for gender, dental sensitivity, type of drink consumed and use of mouthwashes (p>0.05).The pH analysis revealed pH of all the tested samples within acidic range. Only two mouthwashes and mineral water had pH above 5.5.The tested samples on the basis of decreasing acidity were of the following order: soft drinks< fruit based drinks< mouthwashes< mineral water. The results from this study indicated increasing age, presence extra oral symptoms, dry mouth, frequency of beverage intake and citrus fruit consumption to be strong risk factors for dental erosion. Soft drinks and fruit based drinks had sufficiently low pH that could cause tooth dissolution while mouthwashes and mineral water (control) were found to be less acidic.


Dental erosion; influencing factors, pH analysis

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